Transceivers are devices that combine the functions of a transmitter and a receiver. Their primary function is to transmit and receive different signals such as digital or analog signals. Within a local area network (LAN), transceivers are part of the network interface card and are responsible for situating signals over the network media to detect incoming signals while traveling through a similar cable.
In some types of networks, there must be an external transceiver present. In wireless communication devices, transceivers are typically built into the mobile device. With this in mind, this blog will cover how transceivers work in more detail, varying types of transceivers, and their importance in the communications realm.
The most common application for transceivers includes their use in radio communications. In this field, transceivers can be divided into two categories: full and half duplex transceivers. A full duplex transceiver can transmit and receive signals at the same time with cell phones serving as the best example since both parties can talk at once. In contrast, half duplex transceivers silence one party while the other transmits with walkie talkies serving as a prime example.
In particular, satellite communications networks opt for full duplex transceivers. In this configuration, the transmitted signal is called an uplink while a received signal is called a downlink. Generally, there are four types of transceivers used in wireless communications, all of which will be covered in the next section. While the working principle remains the same across all transceivers, each type has its own distinctive characteristics.
Used for baseband modems and routers for analog and digital transmission as well as PA/LNA, RF transceivers are just one type of module that includes both a Tx (transmitter) and Rx (receiver). Here, PAs serve as power amplifiers and LNAs serve as low noise amplifiers. Baseband modems, on the other hand, include chipsets of countless analog or digital modulation methods and ADC/DAC chips.
RF transceivers can be utilized to transmit data in the form of voice or video over a wireless medium, and they can successfully convert intermediate frequency (IF) to radiofrequency (F), both of which are used in satellite communication for the transmission and reception of TV signals, radio transmission and reception, and ITE networks/Zigbee/WLANs.
Also referred to as fiber optical transceivers, optics modules, and optical modules, optical transceivers employ fiber optic transceiver technology to convert electrical signals into light signals. Serving as high-speed transmission devices, this fiber optic technology is essential for optical network devices that include electronic components to encode or decode data into light signals. These signals can then be transmitted as electrical signals through another end. This data is then transmitted in the form of light, using a light source like VSCEL, DFB laser, and FP.
Ethernet transceivers, or media access units (MAUs), are used to link electronic devices in a network to transmit and receive messages. In an ISO network model, Ethernet is the physical layer component and its main function is to detect collisions, convert digital data, conduct Ethernet interface processing, and provide access for the network.
Serving as essential components within wireless communication systems, wireless transceivers combine technology present in Ethernet and RF transponders to improve Wi-Fi transmission speed. The quality of the data can be determined by the efficiency as well as the data delivery within the wireless system.
There are two functional layers to this transceiver: the physical layer and the media access control layer. The physical layers include an RF front-end and a baseband processor. The processor changes a bitstream into a collection symbol flow for data transmission. Meanwhile, the MAC layer provides link traffic control to contact the wireless links, avoid collisions, and enhance data throughput.
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